During the war, the population of the military hospital town of Izegem increased drastically, facilitating the spread of various infectious diseases. On 22 November 1914, a number of preventive measures were taken as far as hygiene was concerned. Doctors were instructed to notify the Kommandantur of all cases of typhoid fever, dysentery, scarlet fever, measles, diphtheria, smallpox, tuberculosis and other suspected infectious diseases. Another new rule demanded that residents clean up their waste, and that garbage was collected twice a week. Furthermore, street openings, exhaust shafts and wells had to be disinfected with lime water at regular intervals. Finally, civilians were instructed to drink boiled water only.

Patients with dysentery or typhoid fever, whether soldiers or civilians, were immediately committed to hospital, either at the Marie Antoinette Villa or at the Ortskrankenstube in the Gentstraat, where they were held in quarantine for four weeks. Their family members or housemates were vaccinated at home; the house and latrines were disinfected.